The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teacher efficacy, practical teaching competence and teaching expertise of prospective Chinese dance teachers. In order to achieve the research objective, prior research on the concepts, components and measurements of each factor and the direct and indirect relationship between key variables was considered. For this study, a survey was conducted on 400 prospective dance teachers and first-time teachers in China from March to April 2021. Data from part 382 were analyzed, excluding non-response and insincere responses. The survey tools were used in questionnaires, consisting of measurement tools for each variable, such as teacher effectiveness, practical teaching competence and teaching expertise, and questions about demographic characteristics. The data analysis utilized the SPSS program and the AMOS program, and conducted descriptive statistics and correlation analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. The main findings are as follows. First, the fit of the model established to save the structural relationship of teacher efficacy, teaching expertise, and practical teaching competence of Chinese prospective dance teachers is found to be good, and validity is secured, making it possible to predict relationships between variables reasonably predictable. Second, teacher efficacy has been shown to have a statistically significant effect on teaching expertise. Third, teacher efficacy has been shown to have a statistically significant effect on practical teaching competence. Fourth, practical teaching capabilities have been shown to have a statistically significant effect on teaching expertise. Fifth, the relationship between teacher effectiveness and teaching expertise was partially mediated by practical teaching competence.