Cancer treatments are increasingly effective, but can result in iatrogenic premature ovarian insufficiency. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the only option available to preserve fertility in prepubertal girls and young women who require immediate chemotherapy. Ovarian tissue transplantation has been shown to restore hormonal cycles and fertility, but a large proportion of the follicle reserve is lost as a consequence of exposure to hypoxia. Another crucial concern is the risk of reimplanting malignant cells together with the grafted tissue. In this review, the authors advance some challenging propositions, from prevention of chemotherapy-related gonadotoxicity to ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation, including the artificial ovary approach.