Among the hallmarks of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) progression and unresponsiveness to therapy is impaired ubiquitin-dependent degradation of nuclear tumor suppressor protein. In the previous stage, our research group found that as a key tumor suppressor, nuclear dysfunction of p27kip1 is closely related to chemotherapy resistance of CCA, but the specific mechanism is unclear. It was recently shown that p27kip1-driven tumors were strongly dependent on the SUMO pathway. RNF4, as the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL), identifies SUMOylated proteins as a substrate through sumo-interacting motifs (SIM) and causes its degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Here we described that the expression of RNF4 was upregulated in CCA tissues and related to malignant features. Silencing RNF4 arrested human CCA cells at the G1 phase, which was associated with the upregulation of p27kip1 and the downregulation of its downstream cycle-related proteins. Silencing RNF4 inhibited cell proliferation and migration, increased cell apoptosis, and sensitized CCA cells to treatment of chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro. Immunofluorescence showed that p27kip1 and RNF4 were mainly co-located in the nucleus. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot showed that p27kip1 was a target protein for SUMOylation and high expression of RNF4 decreased the levels of nuclear p27kip1, enhanced the levels of ubiquitinated and SUMOylated p27kip1, indicating that RNF4 could regulate cell cycle progression via recognizing SUMOylated p27kip1 and facilitating its ubiquitination degradation. These data indicate that RNF4-mediated ubiquitination degradation of SUMOylated proteins is a novel regulatory mechanism of p27kip1 dysfunction and CCA tumorigenesis, which provides a potential option for therapeutic intervention of CCA.