Fragmentation is the main energy dissipation form of foam concrete under explosion loading. To characterize the energy dissipation of foam concrete fragmentation quantitatively, explosion loading experiments of foam concrete plates under different stand-offs and plate thicknesses were carried out. The statistical characteristics of fragments and the energy dissipation law of foam concrete plate fragmentation were studied using image processing, fracture mechanics theory and fractal theory. An engineering calculation model of fragmentation fractal dimension and energy dissipation density of foam concrete plates were established. Results show that: the fragmentation of foam concrete plates under different explosion conditions is a fractal in the statistical sense. With the increase in stand-off and plate thickness, the fragment size of foam concrete plates increases, and the fragmentation fractal dimension decreases linearly. The linear relationship between the energy dissipation density and the fragmentation fractal dimension of foam concrete are expressed as D f = 0.0165 ω + 1.053.