Rosa Laevigata Michx., contents of bioactive components contribute to the health beneftis of consuming fresh, snacks and medicine, is widely used as the Chinese medicinal herbs. The effect of fruit ripening on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of Rosa laevigata Michx fruits was investigated. The results showed that, the bioactive compounds, including titratable acidity, reducing sugar, total ascorbic acid, total polyphenol and total flavonoids, significant changes occurred at different ripening stages. The contents of reducing sugar, total polyphenol and total flavonoids were directly proportional to the maturity. However, the content of titration acid and ascorbic acid is inversely proportional to the maturity. Antioxidant capacity and ROS inhibition are proportional to the maturity, and the antioxidant capacity of Rosa laevigata Michx significantly increase during maturity. The Rosa laevigata Michx fruits at fully ripe stage had higher healthcare and medicinal value.