Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common chronic liver disease with a global prevalence of about 55% in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM, obesity and NAFLD are three closely inter-related pathological conditions. In addition, T2DM is one of the strongest clinical risk factors for the faster progression of NAFLD to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Increasing evidence suggests that newer classes of glucose-lowering drugs, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors or sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, could reduce the rates of NAFLD progression. This narrative review aims to briefly summarize the recent results from randomized controlled trials testing the efficacy and safety of old and new glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of NAFLD or NASH in adults both with and without coexisting T2DM.