Background: The present investigation explored the therapeutic actions of oleuropein along with the possible signaling pathway involved in attenuating neuropathic pain in chronic constriction injury (CCI) and vincristine-induced neuropathic pain in male rats. Methods: Four loose ligatures were placed around the sciatic nerve to induce CCI, and vincristine (50 μg/kg) was injected for 10 days to develop neuropathic pain. The development of cold allodynia, mechanical allodynia, and mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed using different pain-related behavioral tests. The levels of H2S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), orexin, and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were measured in the sciatic nerve. Results: Treatment with oleuropein for 14 days led to significant amelioration of behavioral manifestations of neuropathic pain in two pain models. Moreover, oleuropein restored both CCI and vincristine-induced decreases in H2S, CSE, CBS, orexin, and Nrf2 levels. Co-administration of suvorexant, an orexin receptor antagonist, significantly counteracted the pain-attenuating actions of oleuropein and Nrf2 levels without modulating H2S, CSE and CBS. Conclusions: Oleuropein has therapeutic potential to attenuate the pain manifestations in CCI and vincristine-induced neuropathic pain, possibly by restoring the CSE, CBS, and H2S, which may subsequently increase the expression of orexin and Nrf2 to ameliorate behavioral manifestations of pain.