Abstract While overweight/obesity has become a major public health issue worldwide, any association between body mass index (BMI) and therapeutic response in neoadjuvant targeted therapy treated HER2 positive breast cancer patients remain unclear. The information from a total of four-hundred and ninety-one neoadjuvant targeted therapy treated HER2 positive breast cancer patients from four institutions were retrospectively collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic analysis was developed to determine the association between BMI and therapeutic response. A meta-analysis of published literature was then conducted to confirm the effect of overweight/obesity on pCR for patients treated with neoadjuvant targeted therapy. Restricted cubic spline (RCS) adjusted for confounding factors demonstrated a decrease pCR with increasing BMI (OR = 0.937, P = 0.045). Patients were then categorized into under/normal weight (n = 299) and overweight/obesity (n = 192). Overweight/obese patients were independently associated with a poor therapeutic response. In the subgroup analysis, a significant negative impact of overweight/obesity on pCR can be observed both in single-targeted (OR = 0.556; P = 0.02) and dual-targeted (OR = 0.392; P = 0.021) populations. Six eligible studies involving 984 neoadjuvant targeted therapy treated HER2 positive breast cancer patients were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis also demonstrated that overweight/obesity was significantly associated with a poor response to neoadjuvant anti-HER2 therapy (OR = 0.68; P = 0.007). Our result show that overweight and obese HER2 positive breast cancer patients are less likely to achieve pCR after neoadjuvant targeted therapy.