A separable spherical bio-adsorbent (CMC-Cr) was prepared for capturing heavy metal ions by simple coordination and cross-linking between targeted ions of Cr3+ and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). A simple alternation of the CMC incorporation allowed the interconnected networks within the microspheres of preformed solid CMC to be adjusted. The excellent network structure could achieve the maximum collision between the adsorbent and the heavy metal cations in the wastewater. Through investigations, CMC-Cr-2 beads were determined as the optimal adsorbent. The adsorption performance of novel materials was evaluated by examining their adsorption behavior on Pb(II) and Co(II) under both static and dynamic conditions. The results showed that the adsorption behavior of CMC-Cr-2 beads on both two heavy metal cations could be fully reflected by the Freundlich model. Under the theoretical conditions, the maximum adsorption capacities were 97.26 and 144.74 mg/g. The kinetic results for the adsorption of two heavy metal cations on CMC-Cr-2 beads were consistent with the Pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the correlation coefficient of the Thomas model was significant in the dynamic adsorption performance tests. Five regeneration cycle studies were successfully carried out on CMC-Cr-2 beads to evaluate reusability and stability. The applicability of CMC-Cr-2 beads in authentic aqueous solutions (both the single and binary pollutant systems) was also studied, and the results indicated that CMC-Cr-2 beads had a high potential for practical implementation. Furthermore, by analyzing the surface interactions of two heavy metal cations with the CMC-Cr-2 beads based on FTIR and XPS characterization, a basic understanding of the interaction between bio-sorbents and pollutants in wastewater can be obtained.